GCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 14 Solution
Brief Information: This post contains the solution for Chapter 14 India: Location, Geological Structure And Physiography II of Class 9 Social Science (SS) of the Gujarat Board (GSEB) books by GCERT.
Q.1 Write short answers for the following questions
(1) Which passes are located in the Himalayan system ?
Ans. There are many passes located in the Himalayan sytem like Jelep La, Nathu La, Shipki La etc.
(2) What is regolith ?
Ans. The rock surface erodes to form layer of land. In this layer, there are gravels, smaller stones, pebbles, soil particles etc. which are known as ‘Regolith’.
(3) Which are the major types of rocks ? State them.
Ans. The major types of rocks are
1) Igneous Rocks
2) Stratified or Sedimentary Rocks
3) Metamorphic Rocks
(4) State the soil formation process.
Ans. Soil is a thin layer formed of the organic and inorganic matter on the surface o fthe earth. Soil is the result of denudation of rocks. The rock surface is eroded due to factors like temperature, rain, mow, air, vegetation and insects and it turns into powdery form. Thus it forms the land layer. In this layer, there are gravels, smaller stones, pebbles, soil particles etc. which are known as ‘Regolith’. It contains only mineral contents. Then the biotic matter, air and water are mixed with it. Finally soil is formed out of this mixture.
Q.2 Explain the following terms
(1) Deposition – Deposition means accumulation of sediments or soil particles by either physical or chemical process.
(2) Bangar – The old alluvium in the plains is called ‘Bangar’.
(3) Mineral – ‘Mineral’ is that matter which is formed due to natural organic or inorganic process and has a specific chemical composition.
(4) Rock – A composite matter made up of one or more minerals is called a ‘Rock’.
(5) Soil – Soil is a thin layer formed of the organic and inorganic matter on the surface of the earth.
Q.3 Write to-the-point answers of the following questions
1) Archipelagos of India
Ans. Area of sea where there are many islands is called Archipelago. There are few archipelagos in India. Andaman —Nicobar and Lakshadweep are major archipelagos among them.
1) Lakshadweep – There are many smaller islands in Lakshadweep and these are located at some distance off Kerala coast. These islands have a horse-shoe shape. Such coral islands are called ‘Atolls’.
2) Andaman – Nicobar islands – They are situated in the Bay of Bengal. Here, the number of islands is also more and these are situated very far from Indian coast. There are few mountain ranges, some of which are formed due to the volcanic activity. These islands are spread over 350 km and have a strategic importance. The only active volcano in India is in ‘Barren’ Island in Andaman—Nicobar archipelago. Narkondam, which is very near to it is a dormant volcano.
(2) State the types of soils of India and give a detailed information.
Ans. Soils in India are classified into six types :
1) Alluvial Soil: Alluvial soil can be divided into two types : (1) Khadar, and (2) Bangar. The soil formed due to the fresh alluvial deposit is known as Khadar soil. As this soil is formed due to the river floods, it is found mostly nearby the rivers. Generally such soil is sandy. Soil containing old alluvium in the upper valley region of a river is called Bangar soil. It is sticky and has dark colour. Alluvial soil is seen in many parts of the country. Their fertility is also different at different places. Generally, such soil is very fertile. It is found in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal etc.
(2) Black Soil: This soil is found mostly in Maharashtra, western Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Tamil Nadu. Black soil is the gift of peninsular plateau. This soil is very sticky and fertile. It can retain humidity for a prolonged time. It is formed from the igneous rocks and is very useful for cotton cultivation. That is why it has become famous as Black Cotton Soil. It is also known as regur soil.
(3) Red Soil: Such soil is found in regions of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Its red colour is due to its ferrous and other humus contents. The soil is porous and fertile. Such soil is seen in Goa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Jharkhand.
(4) Laterite Soil: Laterite soil develops as a result of excessive erosion by rain. Due to heavy rain, the humus contents from the top soil descend into the lower strata which is called leaching. As the soil contains less humus it is less fertile. The red sandstones contain iron and aluminium. The erosion of these rocks results into its red colour. Such soil is found in mountainous region of Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha and some parts of North-East.
(5) Mountainous Soil: Humus content is more due to the forests, although it differs from place to place. Such soil on Shivalik Range is less fertile and less developed. The soil is sandy and porous and does not contain humus. Such soil is found in the mountainous region of the country, such as in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, eastern hill ranges, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu-Kashmir and Laddakh (Union Territories).
(6) Desert Soil: Such soil is found in the arid and semi-arid regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. The soil here is more alkaline and has less humus contents. Agriculture has been made possible in such soil only through irrigation.
(3) Classify the minerals.
Ans. A general classification of minerals can be done as follows :
(1) Metallic minerals :
(a) Precious metallic minerals : Gold, silver, platinum etc.
(b) Light metallic minerals : Magnesium bauxite, titanium etc.
(c) Minerals of general use : Iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, nickel etc.
(d) Minerals used alloys : Chromium, manganese listens vanadium etc.
(2) Non — Metallic minerals : Limestone, chak, asbestos, mica, fluorspar, gypsum, sulphur, diamond etc.
(3) Energy resources : Coal, mineral oil and natural gas, uranium, thorium etc.
Q.4 Select the correct option of the following questions and complete the answer
(1) Patkai Hills : Arunachal Pradesh :: Lushai ……
Ans. (C) Mizoram
(2) Who from the following speaks the incorrect statement ? Find out.
(A) Kashish : Gold, silver, platinum are precious minerals.
(B) Kinni : Bauxite, titanium and magnesium are light metallic minerals.
(C) Dhruvi : Tungsten, manganese, and chromium etc. are non-metallic minerals.
(D) Nidhi : Lead, copper and iron etc. are minerals taken in common use.
Ans. (C) Dhruvi : Tungsten, manganese, and chromium etc. are non-metallic minerals.
(3) Match the correct pairs :
(A) I-B, 2-C, 3-A
(B) I-A, 2-C, 3-B
(C) 1-C, 2-B, 3-A
(D) l-B, 2-A, 3-C
Ans. (C) 1-C, 2-B, 3-A
(4) Which of the following statements is true
(A) Western Ghats have more height in northern region.
(B) Western Ghats are called Nilgiri in Karnataka.
(C) Western Ghats are spread north-south in unbroken form along Arabian Sea coast.
(D) Western Ghats are called as Sahyadri on the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Ans. (C) Western Ghats are spread north-south in unbroken form along Arabian Sea coast.
(5) Which plateau is situated between Aravalli and Vindhyachal ?
(A) Chhota Nagpur
Ans. (B) Malwa