GCERT Class 8 Social Science Semester 2 Chapter 7 Solution
Brief Information: This post contains the solution for Chapter 7 Following the Mahatma – Part I of Class 8 Semester 2 of the Gujarat Board (GSEB) books GCERT.
Q.1 Answer the following questions.
1. Why did Gandhiji start Satyagrah in South Africa?
Ans. Gandhiji Started Satyagrah in South Africa to fight racial discrimination by whites towards Indians.
2. Which were the two main features of Satyagrah?
Ans. The two main feature of Satyagrah were path of truth and non-violence.
3. Why the Rowlett Act was called the ‘Black Act’ by Gandhiji?
Ans. Rowlett Act was implemented by the Britishers to control the public unrest and control the anti-colonial activities. The Rowlett Act authorized the government to exercise stricter control on the
press, arrests without warrant and indefinite detention in jail without trial. Therefore, Gandhiji called it the ‘Black Act’.
4. Why did Khilafat Movement start in India?
Ans. After the defeat of Turkey in World War I, Strict and unjust conditions of treaty were imposed on it. As per the treaty his’Khilafat’ (post as Khalifa) who was regilous head of Islam was to be terminated. Muslims all over the world including India launched protests in favour of the Khalifa. This movement in India was known as the ‘Khilafat Movement’.
5. Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation movement?
Ans. Gandhiji was against the use of violent method for movement. During Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922 a crowd of angry farmer ofGorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh attacked Chauri Chaura police station and set twenty two policemen on fire as they fired at the crowd killing few and injuring many. Due to use of violence Gandjhiji withdrew Non-Cooperation movement.
Q.2 Write short notes on the following.
1. Kheda Satyagrah
Ans. Kheda a district of Gujarat experienced famine in year 1917. The agricultural production was destroyed but the British government tried to collect tax from farmers instead of waiving the tax. Under the leadership of Gandhiji, the farmers started Satyagrah against the Britishers. Gandhiji told the farmers that they would not pay the tax until the government accepted their demands. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel quit his practice as a lawyer as a mark of protest and joined Gandhiji. Gandhiji wrote a letter to the collector that if the tax of poor farmers was waived, then the richer farmers would pay the regular tax. At the end, the collector passed an order for the same in 1918 and the movement was successful. The Kheda satyagrah did not yield much result but it became important because of the principles on the basis of which it was fought.
2. Non-Cooperation movement
Ans. Non-Cooperation movement was started by Gandhiji by returning the title of’Kesar-e-Hind’ in year 1920. Gandhiji was of view that British rule in India flourished due cooperation of Indians. So withdrawal of cooperation by Indians is essential to end British rule in India within a year. The two main features of theNon-Cooperation movement were – first was the complete boycott of government jobs, legislative councils, government educational institutions, British titles of honour, foreign clothes and goods. The other creative aspect included the eradication of untouchability, communalism, and consumption of alcohol. During movement many activities were carried out:
Students left the schools and colleges.
Many leaders like Motilal Nehru, C. Rajgopalachari and Asaf Ali left their advocacy.
Most of the elected members of legislative councils and local self-government institutions resigned from their posts.
The foreign clothes were burnt across the nation.
The ‘Charkha’ (The spinning wheel) started taking its place in everyhome. Swadeshi was promoted everywhere.
Many national educational institutions like Kashi Vidyapith, Bihar Vidyapith, Jamia Milia Islamia, Gujarat Vidyapith etc. were established.
The movement was witdrawn by Gandhiji after act of violenec in Chauri Chaura police station attack in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in 1922.
3. Bardoli Satyagrah
Ans. In Bardoli region od Gujarat the British government increased revenue by 22 %. When the farmers’ request was not attended by the government they decided to launch a Satyagrah. Vallabhbhai Patel accepted the leadership of this Satyagrah. Ravishankar Maharaj and Jugatram Dave extended their support to the satyagraha. Fierce and encouraging speeches of Vallabhbhai Patel made the farmers fearless and they denied paying revenue. As a result, the British government called Vallabhbhai Patel to Pune. In the presence of other farmers amount of revenue was settled justly. The success of the Bardoli Satyagrah earned Vallabhbhai Patel the title ‘Sardar’.
Q.4 Match the items in column 'A' with that in column 'B'.
- 1. Champaran – 3. Bihar
- 2. Nataal – 5. South Africa
- 3. Amritsar – 2. Punjab
- 4. Chauri Chaura – 1. Uttar Pradesh
- 5. Lahore – 4. Pakistan