GCERT Class 8 Social Science Semester 2 Chapter 3 Solution
Brief Information: This post contains the solution for Chapter 3 Nationalism in India of Class 8 Semester 2 of the Gujarat Board (GSEB) textbooks by GCERT.
Q.1 Answer the questions given below.
1. What factors played a major role in the rise of nationalism in India?
Ans.Numerous factor played role in the rise of nationalism in India. The major factors are as follow:
a.) Political Factor – The Britishers replaced the many kings and established their direct or indirect rule. A uniform administrative system was implemented but it was not favourable to Indian. It led exploitation of their human rights through harsh treatment and suppression.
b.) Economic Factor – The British rule ruined the handicraft in India. The exported raw materials to Britain and imported cheap, duty free manufactured products to India. The handicraft failed to survive the cut throat competition and manifested nationalism among Indians.
c.) Transport and Telecommunication facilities like railways, telegram, post, land and water ways developed. It brought the Indians from different region together and they to exchange their thoughts and opinions. It reduced the discrimination of caste, community and region and enabled leaders communicate their thoughts and plans to large number of people.
d.) Literature and Education – Britishers brought English education. The citizens became familiar with the recent trends in the world. They were inspired by the ideas of Democracy, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (brotherhood) from the American War of Independence and the French revolution. It developed among people self-confidence and they recognized the power of unity. Various novels, acts, stories, poems, songs etc. were written in regional languages. This written literature spread the message of national unity and devotion.
e.) Newspaper – It criticized the policies of the Britishers and it awakened nationalist feelings in the hearts of people.
f.) Magnificent and rich heritage of India – Ancient Indian books on medical science, astrophysics, diplomacy and spirituality were translated into English and became known to the
people of India and the world. A detailed research on the literary and cultural heritage of India fostered the feeling of pride and nationalism.
2. Describe the activities of the Indian National Congress in its initial phase.
Ans. The initial activities of the Indian National Congress were moderate and abided by the constitution. It included putting up demands for
Economic and social growth
Development of education
Inclusion of more Indians in government services
Reduction of expenditure on military and other administrative departments
Debt relief to farmers
Revival of the cottage industries
Inspiring educated youths and fostering nationalism
3. What were the consequences of the partition of Bengal?
Ans. The decision of partition of Bengal aroused national sentiments. National leaders and people opposed the partition by launching Bang Bhang Movement (Movement against the Partition of Bengal). Under it rallies, demonstrations and distribution of pamphlets were done. ‘Vande Mataram’ song from the novel ‘Anand Math’ written by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya became the popular slogan during this protest. People in Bengal observed the day of the implementation of the partition as the ‘Mourning Day’ and went on strike all over the region.
Swadeshi Movement got intesified against the partition of Bengal. The movement encouraged : (1) To trade and use Indian (Swadeshi) goods only. (2) To boycott imported goods. (3) To acquire national education and boycott the English education. Many School and factories got established. The import of goods like textile, salt, shoes, sugar, cigarette, tobacco etc. from England decreased drastically and the sale of Indian commodities and textile increase
4. How did the need for national education arise in India?
Ans. The Britishers had forced English/Western Education in India. The Indian education took the back seat. However, Western scholars such as Max Muller, Wilson, Ferguson, Friedrich Schelling, Franz Bopp, other Indian scholars like Rajendralal Mitra, Ramkrishna G. Bhandarkar, Hariprasad Shashtri etc. wrote various articles and their writings made the people realize the significance of the Vedas, the Upanishad, the Ramayana, the Mahabharat, the Bhagvad Geeta, the Smrit Puran etc. Besides, people realised that ancient Indian books on medical science, astrophysics, diplomacy and spirituality were translated into English and became known to the the world. This gave birth to the nationalist feeling and pride for Indian education and thus the need of national education arose in India.
Q.2 Answer the following in one or two sentences.
1. Define nationalism.
Ans. Nationalism means a feeling of pride and belongingness towards one’s nation.
2. What do you understand by the moderates? Name them.
Ans. The moderates were the national leaders who adopted a moderate attitude and believed in acquiring political rights through constitutional measures. E.g. Dadabhai Navroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Firozshah Mehta
3. What do you understand by the extremists? Name them.
Ans. The extremists were national leaders who followed the policy of aggression and revolution. These leaders wanted to acquire the self-rule not as a favour but as their right. E.g. Lala Lajpat Rai from Punjab (Lal), Bal Gangadhar Tilak from Maharashtra (Bal) and Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal (Pal).
4. How was the day of the Partition of Bengal (Bang Bhang) observed?
Ans. The day of the Partition of Bengal (Bang Bhang) observed as ‘Mourning Day’ and celebrated as ‘Day of unity’ on suggestion of Rabindranath Tagore. People went on strike all across the region.
5. Who played an important role in the establishment of the Muslim League?.
Ans. The religious head of Muslims – Agha Khan, Nawab of Dhaka- Salim Ullah Khan, Viceroy Minto and his private secretary Dunlop Smith played a important role in the establishment of the Muslim League.
6. Who established the Home Rule league?
Ans. The leader of the Theosophical Society, Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak established the Home Rule league.
7. Where was Subhash Chandra Bose born?
Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose was born in Cuttack, Orissa.
8. How did Subhash Chandra Bose reach Japan?
Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose reached from Berlin to Japan via Sumatra with the help of Nazi’s of Germany.
9. How was ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ formed?
Ans. ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ was fromed by Captain Mohansingh (Indian National Army) with the help of Indian soldiers who had surrendered to Japan as war prisoners.
10. Which slogans were given by Subhash Chandra Bose?
Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose gave slogans like ‘Chalo Delhi’, Jai Hind’ and ‘You give me blood and I will give you freedom’.
11. Where was the Provisional government formed?
Ans. Provisional government formed by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore in October, 1943.
Q.3 Identify me.
1. Indian National Congress was formed due to my efforts.
Ans. Retired British Officer Allan Octavian Hume
2. I adopted the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ in India.
Ans. Governor General Lord Curzon
3. The novel ‘Anand math’ was written by me.
Ans. Bankimchandra Chattopadhyaya
4. I was the first president of the Indian National Congress.
Ans. Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee
5. “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”.
Ans. Lokmanya Tilak
Q.4 Match the items in column 'A' with that in column 'B'.
- 1. Rabindranath Tagore – 5. Shanti Niketan
- 2. Lokmanya Tilak – 2. Kesari
- 3. Lala Lajpat Rai – 4. Shere-e-Punjab
- 4. Bipin Chandra Pal – 1. New India
- 5. Annie Besant – 3. The Common Will