CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 8 - How do Organisms Reproduce
Brief Information: Unlike other life processes, reproduction is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. How do Organism Reproduce chapter involves the creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process. Depending on their body design, various organisms use different modes of reproduction. In fission, many bacteria and protozoa simply divide into two or more daughter cells. Organisms such as hydra can regenerate if they are broken into pieces. They can also give out buds which mature into new individuals. Roots, stems and leaves of some plants develop into new plants through vegetative propagation. These are examples of asexual reproduction where new generations are created from a single individual. Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a new individual. DNA copying mechanisms create variations which are useful for ensuring the survival of the species. Modes of sexual reproduction allow for greater variation to be generated.
Reproduction in flowering plants involves the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination. This is followed by fertilisation. Changes in the body at puberty, such as an increase in breast size in girls and new facial hair growth in boys, are signs of sexual maturation. The male reproductive system in human beings consists of testes which produce sperms, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis. The female reproductive system in human beings consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. Fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube. Contraception to avoid pregnancy can be achieved by the use of condoms, oral pills, copper -T and other methods.
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